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#1 DVader

Posted 02 January 2018 - 07:40 PM

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    CB-Radio DX HOW-TO by 21-SD-333 Goran                    v.1.0.1
    To learn more about how to get 'On the Air' on the 11-Meter band read The CB-Radio DX HOW-TO Here you find some nice hints about working DX
    on the CB-Radio band (11-Meter band)
    This is an official version of the 'CB-Radio DX HOW-TO' it is to be distributed free of charge by members and supporting 'followers' of
    the CB-Radio community, It is 'aimed' to give some nice information on the subject to new operators and 'beginners' in general.
      - Getting started
      - Your First CB-Radio Station
      - What to buy or use
      - 11-meter Band-Plan
      - Modes of modulation
      - Your Call-Sign
      - Joining a CB-Radio group
      - Information about DX-Groups
      - The Q-Code
      - International spelling alphabet
      - Signal Report
      - Sample signal report
      - Your first CB-Radio DX - QSO
      - Listen!
      - Answer on a CQ-Call
      - Making a CQ-Call
      - Making a QSK (Break)
      - Your Log-Book
      - Computer Log-Book
      - QSL Exchange
      - Your QSL-Card
      - Activations
      - GLOSSARY
    Getting started
    From the start in mid 70ths CB-DX has developed into an wide known hobby
    Mostly the operators just make contact to new or old DX-Friend, hawing a nice
    conversation exchanging information about our experiences of Radio-Nature or
    life in general also makes the day, every time. 11-Meter radio is really a
    nice hobby! 
    What´s it about
    The CB-Band(Citizens Band) also called 'Free band' span the frequency
    spectrum from 26MHz and strait up to 28MHz. On these frequencies Radio
    operators from around the world make contact and friendship.
    These frequencies is on the top of the shortwave band (goes up to 30MHz)
    This makes it very interesting due to a number of natural phenomena known
    as 'skip-conditions' or just 'skip' - Reflecting Layers in the stratosphere,-
    Aurora a.s.o. - operators on 11-Meter band uses these phenomena to make 
    long-distance radio contacts,-usually not possible in normal conditions.
    Skip conditions was first discovered in the late 50th. From the early
    70ths and later, CB-DX has developed into an wide known hobby, the number
    of stations on the band is huge! - Almost any country or territory on
    the globe can be heard on the band. 
    To learn more about 11-Meter band conditions and propagation read the -
    11-Meter 'Propagation HOW-TO' 
      @ URL: http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio
    The 11-Meter "Unofficial" Band-Plan
    About usage of the many different frequencies between 26MHz and 28MHz
    and some interesting frequencies Refere to The '11-Meter Unofficial Band-Plan' 
      @ URL: http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio
    Your First CB-Radio Station
    A complete station for working on 11-Meter band in not to complicated.-
    You need first a CB-Radio of some kind and an antenna,- thats al. Then
    of cause it could get very advanced also,- if you wishes to.
    First,- To get started you need a CB-Radio of some type,- to get you started
    right there is some things you might think about.
    Commonly there is 'tree' major types of different CB-Radio's
      Type 1: Uses channels to decide operating frequency. Numbers of
              channels is commonly minimum 40 (1 band) maximum 240.
              In radios with more then 40 channels they are divided into
              'bands' consisting of 40-80 channels.
              These CB-Radio´s does not cover all frequency's continuously, they
              'jump' in steps of 10Khz or even sometime 20Khz
              In most cases these type of radio does not have the possibility
              to work on '0' frequencies such as 27.510Mhz 
              These CB-Radio´s often do not have any frequency display
              Only a simple display for channel number.
              These radios is often older / used / second hand.
              Modulation types may be AM/FM and i some cases also SSB
              Example type 3 radios: HAM Multi-mod I,II,III Major
      Type 2: May use channels divided into band as type 1 radios but have
              also the advantage to be able to 'tune' the covered frequency 
              range continuously.
              Most of these type 2 radios have a frequency display. 
              Modulation types is mostly AM/FM/SSB/CW
              Example type 3 radios: Galaxy Saturn
                                     President George, Lincoln
                                     Uniden 2830
                                     Somercamp FT-2000DX
      Type 3: Does not use channels.
              Tunes the covered frequency range continuasly.
              Handle any type of modulation AM/FM/SSB/CW
              Example type 3 radios: Kenwood / Yaesu / Icom HF Radios o.e.
    Output Power
    Standard output power for type 1 and 2 radios is 5-20W AM and 10-50W SSB
    The output for type 3 radios is often as high as 50W AM and 100W SSB 
    What to buy or use
    This is a simple question! Buy the radio you can afford! Off cause it is
    better to use an more advanced radio,- but remember that a good type 1
    radio in good hands and with some good conditions could out perform the
    most expensive type 3 radio any time!.
    Second,- A good antenna should cower the decided operating frequency with an 
    SWR (Standing Wave Ratio) less then 1:1,3 - This is not to hard to get,- but
    you might have to decide if you´r about to work around 26.285Mhz or 27.555Mhz 
    call frequency's,- working both with the same antenna without an antenna tuner
    (matching device) is not to think about since the frequency coverage of an
    normal CB-Antenna is about 200Khz (or 40 channels) There is however antennas
    that covers a wider range.
    Omni directional vs. directional antennas.
    The Omni directional antenna is almost always an vertical polarized antenna.
    It is preferable to use vertical polarized antennas when working ground-wave,-
    however a good Omni directional / vertical polarized antenna is a good start
    also for DX-Usage.
    When working DX the directional antenna is the best choice, due to many reasons:
      You boost both incoming and outgoing signals.
      You make less QRM for other stations on same or close frequency
      Also able to 'shield' QRM from back or side of antenna to boost reception.
      There is also other reasons...
    Horizontal vs. Vertical antenna  
    Why is an horizontal polarized antenna better for DX-Contacts? You could ask,-
    The answer is: When using a Vertical antenna the transmitted RF-Signal tend to
    'stick' to the ground, thereby called 'Ground-Wave' this is a good thin if you
    want to make big-signals localy,- effects only your contacts in the distance of
    about 70-200Km Maximum.
    When working DX-Stations you don't need an strong 'Ground-Wave' you desire is that
    maximum RF-Signal should leave the Ground and bounce into the stratosphere and 'skip'
    down in an DX-Country. This effect is much more eminent on an horizontal polarized
    Putting it together
    To get more information about grounding and lightning protection
    read the 'Grounding HOW-TO'
      @ URL: http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio
    Problems with Interference.
    To get more information about how to avoid and solve problems with interference,- 
    Read the 'Interference HOW-TO'
      @ URL: http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio
    Modes of modulation
    The modulation types used on the 11-Meter band is mostly SSB
    (Single Side Band) and FM (Frequency modulation) some stations also
    uses CW (Continues Wave/Morse code) The AM (Amplitude Modulation)
    is not used. 
      Modulation types.
      Modulation type    Sub type     Usage / Notes
      AM                 none         Don´t use it! Makes QRM!
      FM                 none         Best for local QSO use!
                                      Makes QRM if used for DX
      SSB                LSB / USB    Best for DX QSO use!
    Some data modes is also used on the 11-meter band, they are using SSB-
    Modulation as carrier. (USB/LSB) Packet stations is often heard on 27.235 
    (ch.24 Scandinavian stations mostly) other Modes/Frequency refers to 
    The 11-Meter "Unofficial" Band-Plan.
      @ URL:http:// 
    Your Call-Sign
    There is really no "standard" method to get a call sign, first you simply 
    make one up for your self! It´s as easy as that! But Here is some general
    "hints" to think about when you create a call sign for your first contact. 
    - The first part (numbers) in a CB-call sign refer to the country prefix
      list, their is one prefix list that is close to standard on the 11-Meter 
      band, this is the AT-List (From Alfa Tango DX Group - Asti/Italy) 
    - The second part (Letters) in a CB-call sign is commonly the "Group" 
      letters, therefore if your about to create a call sign of your own, try
      to chose letters that is not used by any DX-Group . 
    - The last part (numbers) in a CB-call sign is commonly the membership 
      number in the group according to the second part of the call sign.
    Joining a CB-Radio group
    Also a part of CB-Radio that is really hard to explain, but not very
    complicated in real life! To join a DX-Group commonly isn´t that hard, 
    in general most groups requests an application from you, some form of 
    effort is often asked from you, you might have to work X-numbers of
    stations belonging to the group you want to join, or something like that. 
    Some groups don't accept applications, they only invite CB-Operators 
    strictly by recommendations from other group members. 
    Information about DX-Groups
    To get information about a DX-Group simply ask the station you talk to
    about information,- most operators strongly 'promote' their respective
    DX-Group and gladly sends you any needed information an most certain an
    application-form of thair DX-Group,- many DX-Groups now also have
    information available on the internet. 
    The Q-Code.
    The International Q-Code is also used on the CB-Radio band (11-Meters).
    Using the Q-Code simplify making contact if conditions is pore, it also
    shortens the time you have to be "on the air", Use of Q-Code on the
    CB-Radio band is close to mandatory
    Some Common Q-Codes used on the CB-Radio band. 
      CQ   Seek You! Used for calling on stations/regions or general calls 
      QSL  Confirmation of complete contact by radio 
      QSO  A completed contact by radio 
      QRM  Interference from other RF-Signals
      QRN  Noice / Static or atmosphere Interference
      QRT  Stop your transmission / Or: I am about to stop my transmission
      QSY  Change to other frequency.
      QRZ  What is your Call-Sign? / Or: My Call-Sign is... 
      QSB  Non stabile signal, the signal strenght is going up and down... 
      QTH  Position from where the transmission is made 
      QSK  Brake in on an ongoing QSO 
    Want More Q-Codes? Refere to the Q-Code list:
      @ URL:http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio
    International spelling alphabet.
    The use of a common spelling alphabet makes life on the band much more
    simple, use of the International spelling alphabet is common on the
    CB-Band, However local variations is also used. The suggestion is to use
    the International spelling alphabet.
    (It´s the same as the alphabet used for International
    Aviation communication) 
    International spelling alphabet.
      A - Alfa     B - Bravo    C - Charlie  D -Delta
      E - Echo     F - Foxtrot  G - Golf     H - Hotel
      I - India    J - Juliet   K - Kilo     L - Lima
      M - Mike     N - November O - Oscar    P - Papa
      Q - Qubeq    R - Romeo    S - Sierra   T - Tango
      U - Uniform  V - Victor   W - Wiskey   X - X-Ray
      Y - Yankee   Z - Zulu
    Signal Report
    Always give signal report to the opposite station, the signal report is split into two parts. 
    Part one: Signal Readability - A scale from 0(Zero) to 5(Five)
      Radio 5  Excellent signal 100% Readable
      Radio 4  Good signal 80-100% Readable
      Radio 3  Some difficulty to read about 60-80% Readable
      Radio 2  Big problems to read, Less then 50% readable
      Radio 1  Very hard to read about 20% Readable
      Radio 0  No modulation - 0% Readable
    Part two: Signal strength - A scale from 0(Zero) to 9(Nine) 
    It is the same as "S" units on most standard signal-meters on the CB-Radio 
      Signal 9+ Very Strong Signal (Stable/No QSB)
      Signal 9  Very Strong Signal
      Signal 8  Still Strong Signal
      Signal 7  Strong Signal
      Signal 6  Medium Strong Signal
      Signal 5  Medium Strong Signal
      Signal 4  Not so Strong Signal
      Signal 3  Quite weak Signal
      Signal 2  Very weak Signal
      Signal 1  Almost No Signal
      Signal 0  No Signal
    Sample signal report.
    You are receiving a signal from a CB-Station, your signal-meter is reading
    seven (7) "S"-Units and the modulation (talk) is 100% readable, but the 
    signal is going down to Five (5) "S"-Units from time to time, 
    your signal report could be:
      Sample 1: "Your Signal report is 57 / 55 with some QSB"
    Your first CB-Radio DX - QSO
    Time to make the first contact, tune your CB-Radio to an International
    Call-frequency (27.555Mhz or 26.285Mhz is a good place to start) Listen 
    carefully, there is no need for you to make your own CQ-Calls if somebody
    that you wishes to contact is already calling CQ on the frequency. 
    Simply answer that Call instead of making your own Call (And QRM) 
    The key to successful Dx is to listen, many interesting DX stations often 
    don´t answer on CQ-Calls, and they might not make any CQ-Calls them self.
    You simply need to listen and wait, don´t disturb nice conversations, 
    listen and learn instead! If you disturb (Makes QRM) for a nice DX-Station
    the chance to work this station in MINIMUM. 
      * Remember! You don´t want to be known as an QRM-Station! *
    Answer on a CQ-Call
    (General Calls or a call for your prefix/region only!)
    Only answer Calls for your country/region (Prefix) or General Calls, 
    Answering on Calls for other countries/regions (prefix) than your own is 
    not good, it only makes QRM and the chance for you to make QSO with the
    calling station is only getting smaller!. 
    To answer a CQ-Call (General-Call or Call for your prefix) - Simply call
    the opposite station giving his/hers call-sign first followed by Yours. 
    Also! Try to give a QSY frequency as soon as possible, don´t make the
    QSO on a Call-Frequency. Important! Remember to check for a free QSY
    frequency first. The QSY-Frequency have to be within MAXIMUM 100Khz +/-
    from the start frequency due to problems with SWR.
    The station with the call sign "3KP000" is making a general call, you 
    wishes to make a QSO with this station, you answer the call, here is
    tree example answer calls. 
      Sample 1: 3KP000, 3KP000 this is [Your Callsign] QSY frequency 
                [New frequency] QSL
      Sample 2: 3KP000, 3KP000 - [Your Callsign] Calling, How copy? QSL
      Sample 3: 3KP000, 3KP000 - [Your Callsign] Standing by on 
                [New frequency] for possible OSQ 
    Change to the new frequency and make a new call for the oposite station, 
    or wait for the oposite station to call on you. 
    OR! - And ewen better method, make a call and give QSY frequency
    [New frequency] at once! (Recommended) 
    Making a CQ-Call
    Go to an call-frequency and listen first,- if someone else is calling 
    and you wishes to talk to that station simply answer and make a QSY 
    (Change frequency) 
    If the frequency is clear (No stations calling) You can make a call
    for any station or an region or country. 
      Sample 1: CQ CQ CQ DX this is [Your Callsign], [Your Callsign] QSY to 
                [New frequency]
      Sample 2: CQ CQ CQ for [Region or Division] this is [Your Callsign], 
                [Your Callsign] QSY to [New frequency] 
    Hint! If low conditions you might repeat your [Your Callsign] and 
    [New frequency] a coupple of times more,- but trye not to make your
    call to long,- 20-40 seconds at the most!! 
    If you are calling on a call-frequency,- Try to give a QSY frequency as 
    soon as possible, don´t make the QSO on a Call-Frequency. Important! 
    Remember to check for a free QSY frequency first. 
    Making a QSK (Break)
    Making a QSK on an ongoing QSO should be done with great restriction,- 
    for example if the conditions is unusual,- if you simply wish to make a
    QSO with one of the stations in QSO, you should wait until the two 
    stations ended thair QSO!! 
    NOTE! Only make QSK if the matter concernes both stations in QSO
    Used with restriction you could make an QSK only to get aknollage and
    inform the two QSO stations that you are interested in QSO and that you
    are standing by for QSO after they finished their ongoing QSO. 
       New DXCC
       :-) = //Great SMILE!//
       This is my reaction when a new DXCC-Country is
       worked on the band. However, hawing a nice
       QSO with a new or old DX-Friend, exchanging
       information about our experiences of DX-Nature
       or life in general also makes the day, every
       time. 11-Meter radio is realy a nice hobby! 
    Your Log-Book
    Keeping a log of your DX-Radio contacts is a great idea, it simplifies
    QSL-Excange and you dont have to remember everything in your head! Here
    is a suggestion about what to write in your Log-book.
    What to write in your Log-Book.
    In your log, you could write about contacts to make it possible to
    remember who you have contacted,- to keep track of QSL-exchange and maby
    to help you count your 'dxcc-score' a.s.o.
      Call             Name/handle         (*postal-adress for QSL-exchange)
      QSO Time / date  QSO frequency       Signal report 
      QRM/QRN/QSB      Mode of modulation
    Also a sample log-book page in MS-Excel 97 and Adobe .pdf format ready 
    for you to use!. 
      @ URL:http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio/log_book.xls
      @ URL:http://cbdx.overkalix.se/radio/log_book.pdf
    *The postal code is only needed if your about to send a QSL to this 
    QSL Exchange
    The final courtesy of QSO/DX is a QSL. It is common to exchange QSL-Cards,
    If you promisse to send a QSL-Card, then do´it! - If you don´t want to 
    exchange QSL simply notify the opposit station that you don´t exchange cards!. 
      * Remember! You don´t want to be on any "BLACK-LIST" as a bad QSL! *
    Your QSL-Card.
    Some hints about what to put on your QSL-Card. It is always nice to get
    a personal QSL-Card,- look at the samples, you might get some ideas
    about how to design your own card, many CB-Radio clubs also sell there
    "Group"-QSL cards. 
    Of cause your QSL-Card is a 'letter of friendship' and therefore should
    not make any kind of offense towards anyone. It should not contain any
    material, text or images with subject such as: political, religious, sexual
    a.s.o. that can be miss interpreted or is aimed to affect the receiver in
    negative meaning, intentional or unintentional.
    This is the minimum of information to put on your QSL-Card. 
      QSO information.
      Your Call-Sign   Your first name     our QTH 
      QSO Time / date  QSO frequency       Signal report 
      QRM/QRN/QSB      Mode of modulation
      Transceiver       RF Output(W)        Antenna 
    Some Sample CB-Radio QSL Cards from around the world (Al continents)
      @ URL:http://
    Postal addresses
    Remember that CB-DXing is NOT allowed in most countries! Therefore always
    handle Postal-adresses with care! - If you got the address 100% the first
    time, don't repeat it back over the CB,- just state that you got the 
    address 100% - If possible, obtain the QSL address via a 'Call-book' or 
    This is a special event on the band,- usually a number of fellow radio
    operators forming a 'team' to travels in to another country or territorial
    (DXCC) or an island (IOTA) to activate it.
    Normally with special call-sign and also confirming the contact with 
    special QSL-Card. Most interesting Activation's is made from rare
    DXCC-Countrys. (These is not usual, and very hard to work.)
    DXCC Activation's.
    The activation should be made from a country or Territory void in
    DXCC-Country list, At the moment 340 country's or territories qualify for DXCC.
    IOTA Activation's.
    'Islands On the Air'
    The activation should be made from an island that is voit by IOTA-Rules.
    LOTA Activation
    'Lighthouses On the Air'
    The activation is made from a Lighthouse,- this is a new form of 
    Running an Activation of your own.
    11-Meter              Corresponding wave length to the 27MHz frequency
                          Wavelenght is calculated [Speed of light]/[Frequency]
    51                    Popular used 'greeting' term used when finish of contact
    55                    Often used in combination with the other 'good numbers'
    73                    51=Best regards 55=  
    88                    73=Hope to hear you again  88=Love and kisses
                          These good numbers' originates from early morse operators
    Activation            Term used to identify Radio-Station normaly not working
                          within present location, often other DXCC-Country or IOTA-Island
                          Normaly activation is done within DXCC-Countrys that normaly
                          isn´t heard on the band, however these days activation is also
                          done from 'Regions' and/or 'County's' within a country,- also 
                          from 'club' stations special events, celebrations a.s.o.            
    CB                    U.S.A 'Citizens Band' within the frequency range of 26MHz to 28MHz
    CB-Radio              An combined receiver and transmitter contained within the
                          same cover made for usage within the frequency range of 
                          26MHz to 28MHz
    Coaxial cable         A type of cable used for RF-Signals, it has two conductors.
                          The center conductor is for the RF-Signal,- An outer conductor
                          is functioning as 'shield' to contain the RF-Signal within
                          the Coaxial-cable.
      Skip-conditions     Status of any natural phenomena that is used in order
                          to make an long distance radio contact.
                          (Reflecting Layers in the stratosphere, Aurora a.s.o.)
      Working-Conditions  Equipment,- radio antenna a.s.o. used for the contact.
    DX                    Used to categorize Long Distance contact. Outside your country.
    DXCC                  The 'DX-Country Club',- now used as term for determine and
                          separations of countrys or territories making separate
                          'radio-country' or 'prefix' to be counted as a 'DXCC'
                          At the moment 340 countrys or territories qualify for DXCC.
    FreeBand              Often used term to identify the frequency range of 26MHz to 28MHz
    IOTA                  Islands On The Air
    LOTA                  Lighthouses On the Air
    Modulation            States the method used to encode in this case an Audio signal (voice)
                          on to an RF-Signal carrier.
      FM                  Frequency Modulation
      AM                  Amplitude Modulation
      LSB                 Lower Side Band (Single Side Band Modulation)
      USB                 Upper Side Band (Single Side Band Modulation)
      CW                  Continuous Wave (None modulated carrier)
    Polarisation          States the angle of radiated RF-Signal emitted from any 
                          antenna,- In these case normaly Vertical or Horizontal.
    Propagation           Status of any natural phenomena that is used in order
                          to make an long distance radio contact. Se also 'Skip-Conditions'
                          (Reflecting Layers in the stratosphere, Aurora a.s.o.)
    SWR                   'Standing Wave Ratio' Used to determine miss matching in
                          the transmission line eq= Radio - Feedline - Antenna.
                          Messures miss matching i terms of ratio. SWR 1:1 = 100% match. 
    Tranceiver            An combined receiver and transmitter contained within the
                          same cover, now equals to normal amateur radio equipment
                          for usage on HF-Band 0.5-30MHz
    QSL-Card              A receipt of an contact (QSO) sent by normal mail
                          to verify the contact.
    In some countries it is illegal (Not allowed) to use CB-Radio for DX 
    communication, so you need to check with local laws and regulations 
    before starting with CB-Radio DX.
    Local (Country bound) Laws and regulations often cowers the usage of 
    CB-Radio in the following related/linked considerations.
    - Usage of specific freqensies in the range of 26-28Mhz
      (National HF-Band plan)
    - Usage of official CB-Radio chanals (Citizen Band, 23ch, 40ch etc.)
    - Usage of different types of modulation, often only FM 
      (other types of modulations is often not allowed)
    - Usage of directional antennas.
    - Restrictions considering RF-output effect. (Often no more then 4Watt) 
    - Restrictions considering usage of CB-Equipment for communication only
      between stations in the same country, and/or between one stationary 
      and one mobile or maritime-mobile station (not for use between two 
      stationary/base stations) 
    You must understand that this document is provided on 'As-Is' basis,- 
    the author or distributor of this document can not take any responsibility 
    for errors or omissions,- nor can any clames be made due to damages or 
    other offence caused by use of information in this document.
    Al information is amed as 'just information'.
    The use of this information is strictly in the hands of the reader.
    This is an official version of the 'CB-Radio DX HOW-TO' it is to be
    distributed free of charge by members and supporting 'followers' of
    the CB-Radio community, It is 'amed' to give some nice information
    on the subject to new operators and 'beginners' in general.
    The text and material in this document is copyrighted and own by
    the Author,- However distribution or copying of the document is
    alowed and even encouraged with this in mind:
    - You must distribute or copy the document in total!
    - Distribution or copying of the document in part is NOT allowed!
    - Top and bottom lines reading 'The CB-Radio DX HOW-TO by -
      (21SD333) Goran' and '(c)1998-2001 By Author 21SD333 Goran'
      may not be removed!
    - You are not allowed to 'ADD' - 'REMOVE' or 'CHANGE' any part
      or text contained within this document. 
    CB-Radio DX HOW-TO               (c)1999-2001 By 21-SD-333 Goran
    (c) Al rights reserved!

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